Sodium vs lithium vs hydrogen for two-wheeled vehicles

In terms of travel, two-wheeled vehicles have become the preferred means of transportation for most people in the city with the advantages of being light, convenient and environmentally friendly. Combined with the needs of this part of the population, the future range, safety, power, environmental protection, lightweight will become its development trend.
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Operating characteristics of the bicycle industry

Influenced by the weakening of external demand led to a substantial decline in the production of bicycles, and the production of two wheeler electric bike maintained steady growth. Statistics show that in 2022, the output of bicycles was 51.352 million units, down 32.8% year-on-year, while the output of electric bicycles was 49.238 million units, up 8.2% year-on-year.

Profit growth is faster, profitability is further improved.In 2022, the operating income of enterprises above the scale of bicycle and electric bicycle increased by 3% year-on-year, and profit increased by more than 20% year-on-year. Export growth rate fell more. 2022 bicycle export volume fell 39.7% year-on-year, export value fell 27.0% year-on-year. 1-12 months, parts and components exports fell 7.4% year-on-year.

2023 In the first half of the year, the production of bicycles steadily recovered, China’s demand continued to expand, the decline in exports narrowed. from January to June, affected by the substantial decline in exports, the production of bicycles above the scale of enterprises decreased by 25% year-on-year; the production of electric bicycles above the scale of enterprises increased by 10% year-on-year, and the sub-sector of electric bicycles continued to maintain steady growth.

Economic efficiency showed a warming trend, industry profits to achieve faster growth. Bicycle and electric bicycle industry operating income of enterprises above designated size decreased by 6% year-on-year, and industry-wide profit increased by 24% year-on-year.


It is not difficult to see from the macro data, the global trade situation is at a low level, the external demand is weak, to develop and layout of the domestic market is one of the important work of the industry at present. Among them, technology, after years of development China has basically built a complete supporting two-wheeled vehicle industry chain system.

In the future, the key to make up for the short board, forging the long board is to comprehensively improve the maturity of technology, especially in raw materials, driving force and other key technologies, to realize the existing production line to reduce costs and increase efficiency, and accelerate the breakthrough of high-end products.

Some data show that up to 70% of the two-wheelers on the market today use lead-acid batteries. A lead acid motorcycle battery is a type of battery made primarily of lead and oxides with a sulfuric acid solution as the electrolyte. In terms of performance, lead-acid batteries have an average cycle life of 300 to 500. Currently, with the development of technology, two-wheeled vehicle drive research is blossoming, sodium, lithium, hydrogen each show their skills.

Hydrogen energy for two-wheeled vehicles

In recent years, the global call for clean energy is getting stronger and stronger. At present, under the strong support of the policy, the hydrogen energy industry is developing at a high speed, and the industry is thriving, and there are also some skeptical voices in all aspects, with reservations about the prospect of hydrogen energy development, the authenticity and reliability of hydrogen energy applications.

Hydrogen-powered two-wheelers have obvious advantages in terms of range, replenishment, comprehensive energy costs, safety, etc. Combined with hydrogen “lightweight” solutions in line with the dual-carbon policy, they have become a development option for short- and medium-distance travel. In addition, as the public’s awareness of shared mobility continues to rise, and the scale of shared mobility scooters continues to expand, the daily usage rate of shared mobility scooters will further increase.

Against this backdrop, hydrogen two-wheelers are developing rapidly in 2023, and various new and old hydrogen energy companies are engaged in fierce competition. Standing on the wind mouth of hydrogen energy application, if hydrogen two-wheelers can realize mass production scale effect, it will become a strong competitor in the two-wheeler market.

At present, China’s hydrogen energy industry development is in the initial exploration stage of cost reduction and efficiency, technological innovation and synergistic promotion, hydrogen energy industry chain upstream and downstream synergistic linkage effect is not yet fully apparent, while the hydrogen two-wheeled vehicle application problems how to break through?Hydrogen two-wheeled vehicles with solid hydrogen storage technology, where is the space for progress? Hydrogen energy applications when the real landing and other issues gradually appeared.


Previously, the director of the Pearl Hydrogen Project, Wang Di, said at the 2023 World Hydrogen Technology Conference that the development of hydrogen fuel cells two-wheelers requires more manufacturers of key components to be able to enter the Calais, such as metal hydrogen storage, solenoid valves, lithium batteries, these manufacturers to join together for testing and optimization of these key components.

For example, metal hydrogen storage, solenoid valve, lithium battery manufacturers to join together to test, improve and optimize these key components, scale production, reduce costs. For further information, you can check top 10 two wheeler lithium battery manufacturers in China.

Secondly, we hope that more vehicle manufacturers and shared operation center control enterprises can join in, so that we can open up the market together in a positive way; Thirdly, I hope that the existing urban shared bicycle operation service providers can work together at the level of landing and operation, and I hope that more peers can work together to help accelerate the layout of the hydrogen ecosystem across the country.

Lithium ion battery for two-wheeled vehicles

In recent years, with the deepening of the new national standard, the popularization of lithium two-wheeled vehicles accelerated, lithium batteries are welcomed by more and more consumers. It can be said that the penetration of lithium batteries there is still a lot of room for growth, the trend of lithium-ion is irreversible, electric two-wheeled vehicles in the field of comprehensive promotion of “lead-free” time is ripe.

In lithium battery industry, the lithium-ionization of electric two-wheelers has been accelerating in recent years. A noteworthy trend is that data shows that more than 50% of new models launched by major electric two-wheeler brands in 2022 are equipped with lithium batteries. It is expected that the market size of lithium-electric vehicles is expected to reach RMB 40 billion in 2024, and the growth trend will continue in the future.


A research report shows that the weight of lithium batteries is only one-third of lead-acid batteries, taking into account the range and weight requirements. Considering the consumer willingness and regulatory efforts, assuming that the future penetration rate of lithium models in urban areas reaches 80%, it is expected to give rise to 15 million vehicles / year upgrade space.

NIU electric president Li Yan recently said in an interview, the urban population is changing the way of traveling, the general direction of which includes both the logic of oil to electricity, but also China’s lead-acid batteries to lithium batteries in the local logic. At present, the traditional two-wheeled vehicles have stepped into the stock, coupled with the implementation of the new national standards, two-wheeled electric vehicles intelligent, lithium-electric is an inevitable trend.

Sodium ion battery for two-wheeled vehicles

Sodium ion battery is a kind of battery that relies on the movement of sodium ions between the positive and negative electrodes to complete the work of charging and discharging, which is mainly composed of the positive electrode, negative electrode, electrolyte, diaphragm and collector, and its working principle is similar to that of lithium ion battery.

When charging, Na+ is detached from the positive electrode, embedded in the negative electrode through the diaphragm and combined with electrons. When discharging, Na+ is removed from the negative electrode and embedded in the positive electrode through the diaphragm, while electrons are transferred from the negative electrode to the positive electrode through the external circuit, and the positive electrode eventually undergoes redox reaction to restore the sodium-rich state.

The industry has long been saying that sodium batteries will replace lead-acid batteries and take over the two-wheeler market. It is important to know that in terms of performance, sodium batteries have a theoretical cycle life of 3,000-4,000 cycles, which far exceeds the number of cycles of lead-acid batteries and reduces the replacement frequency of lead-acid batteries. In addition, sodium batteries can still maintain a discharge efficiency of over 90% in a -20°C environment. This is a stronger alternative for many places with cold climates.


Due to the high internal resistance of sodium batteries, they emit less heat when short-circuited. Moreover, at present, so many enterprises vigorously layout sodium battery, has long been tested for its safety. It is reported that some battery companies have done a pinprick experiment on sodium batteries, can do the whole process does not smoke, does not catch fire, does not explode, and in the actual charging process temperature rise is low.

It is argued that with the industrialization of sodium batteries, it may occupy part of the two-wheeled vehicle market. Because the development of sodium batteries is still in the exploratory stage, compared with the price of lead-acid batteries, safety and after-sales experience, there is still a small gap. At present, many companies have continued to “two-wheeled vehicles equipped with sodium batteries” in the direction of efforts.

For example, in January this year, Beijing Songbao New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. released the first sodium battery (referred to as: Songbao Sodium Energy 1) equipped with two-wheeled vehicles in the Northeast Liaoning Jinzhou and other cities for field riding tests. Even in -40 degrees Celsius environment can be normal riding; charge to 80% of the power in the fast charging mode in just 15 minutes!

By the time of the test, Songbao sodium energy 1 can already do 3,000 times of charging and discharging cycles, far more than the traditional lead-acid batteries. The single energy density of the battery cell is also not much different from that of lithium iron phosphate battery, reaching 150wh/kg.

Songbao marketing director Lei Yandong said earlier that the sodium battery in all aspects of performance beyond the lead-acid batteries, the company has completed a series of tests, ready to sodium energy 1 formally introduced to the market.

BYD achieves lead-free vehicles

Previously, in early October, a statement let BYD again on the hot search. BYD officially announced that the plug-in hybrid models of the starting battery, from lead-acid batteries to switch to lithium iron phosphate batteries, the successful realization of the whole car “lead-free”.

BYD’s promotion of new energy vehicles without lead, so that lithium batteries to fully replace lead-acid batteries has become a fact of life. It can be predicted that, in the dual-carbon background, from the “four-wheeled lead-free landing” to “two-wheeled green”, green travel, environmental protection travel has become the trend of the times, assisted two-wheeled vehicles as one of the important ways of national travel, is an important part of the new energy green travel! As one of the important ways of national transportation, assisted two-wheelers are an important part of new energy green transportation.


With the deepening of the new national standard landing, consumer acceptance of the significant increase in the two-wheeled vehicles, “lead-free” horn has been blown, the acceleration of the new energy process has been the general trend of the future market in the future which new energy batteries will become the mainstream to stand out? Let’s wait and see.

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