The competition of sodium battery – electric two-wheeler market

Table of Contents

With the implementation of global environmental protection policies, electric two-wheelers are gaining great momentum. Among which, batteries, as the power source of electric wheelers, are particularly important. For electric two-wheelers, in addition to lithium batteries, sodium batteries have gradually occupied a position that cannot be underestimated.

This article will introduce you to sodium batteries and the manufacturers that have joined the competition of sodium battery.

What is sodium battery

A sodium battery is a battery that uses the intercalation process of sodium ions between the cathode and anode to achieve charging and discharging. When it is charged, sodium ions leave the cathode and enter the anode, and the electronic charge compensation enters the external circuit to ensure the charge balance of the cathode and anode. When discharging, sodium and lithium batteries are similar, but with different electrolytes.

The working principle of the sodium battery is similar to that of the lithium battery, which is essentially the movement of cathode and anode electrons during the charging and discharging process of the battery.


Development status of sodium battery

In 2023, sodium technology have achieved a breakthrough and commercial mass production, making it a goal that major companies are chasing for. However, as the price of lithium carbonate continues to drop, which leads to a upward trend of the whole lithium battery industry, the halo of sodium battery has suddenly dimmed.

Looking around the entire sodium battery industry, it seems that only the electric two-wheeler industry is still on the track. From power battery companies to vehicle manufacturers, the leading companies are competing for the entry into the game, which has made the competition of two-wheeler sodium battery more intense.

While the price of lithium battery has dropped, why is the enthusiasm for sodium battery in the electric two-wheeler industry remains undiminished? Which leading companies in the current industry are participating in this competition of sodium battery?

Different from lithium batteries, sodium batteries have received little attention due to their inherently low energy density and deficiency to meet market demands. In 2020, the price of lithium carbonate soared, which put pressure on manufacturers’ profits, and that was when sodium batteries, which used to be not the best choice, gradually come to be valued by the market (especially the electric four-wheeler market), and then entered the stage of electric two-wheelers.


Different from the idea of replacing lithium with sodium in the four-wheel industry, the application positioning of sodium battery in the field of two-wheelers is very clear: replacing lead-acid battery with sodium battery.

At present, lead-acid batteries account for more than 70% of the domestic two-wheeler market. However, under the background of carbon neutralization and high-quality industrial development, two-wheelers are transforming towards green and environmental protection. It is a general trend to eliminate lead-acid batteries with short life and high pollution. The market needs longer life and more environmentally friendly battery products to replace lead-acid batteries.

Product technologies:
Sodium battery and lithium battery are the only two products in the current market that can replace lead-acid batteries. They both have a theoretical cycle life of more than 6,000 cycles, which is a great leap forward compared to the average cycle life of lead-acid batteries of 300-500 cycles. And based on safety and price considerations, sodium batteries are more suitable for replacing lead-acid batteries than lithium batteries.

Data shows that even in the face of the most stringent nail penetration test, sodium batteries can achieve no smoke, no fire, no explosion, and the temperature rise is lower during the actual charging process, which means its safety is not inferior to that of lead-acid batteries. 

At present, the comprehensive cost of lead-acid battery products on the market is about 0.04 USD/Wh, while the actual cost of sodium batteries is between 0.07-0.09 USD/Wh. After mass production, it will approach 0.04-0.07 USD/Wh, which is close to the cost of lead-acid batteries, making it possible to replace lead-acid batteries.

The price is close, the performance is better, and it is more environmentally friendly and safe. No matter from the product level or from the market level, sodium batteries have the opportunity and conditions to replace lead-acid batteries, and the prospects are broad.

Leading companies joining the sodium battery competition

Although the prospects are broad, good products cannot go without continuous development. The key to this sodium battery competition is to realize commercial mass production earlier and bring products to the market to attract users.

Since sodium battery received attention, battery companies, including top 10 motorcycle battery manufacturers, have been in constant dynamics, and two-wheeler manufacturers have also entered the competition of sodium battery one after another.

Traditional lead-acid/lithium battery leading companies



At the beginning of 2023, Chilwee joined hands with Puna Energy to release a new sodium ion battery. Chilwee sodium battery adopts stable module structure design, pouch battery cell and complete battery management system.

With advantages of high safety technical route and lamination process, strong power, long range and long battery life, bringing better travel experience for users, Chilwee’s new sodium battery product will open a new chapter in the development of sodium battery industry.



January 12, at Phylion’s 2023 annual strategy conference, Phylion first exposed its first-generation sodium ion battery—”Super Sodium F1″, which has advantages of ultra-long life, ultra-fast charging, ultra-long battery life, and ultra-accurate display ,super safety and super high cost performance, which has aroused great attention in the industry.



March 30, Tianneng released Tianna T1, its new generation of sodium ion battery, which has advantages such as long battery life, low temperature resistance, excellent acceleration performance, and strong fast charging ability.

At the same time, Aima, Luyuan, Xinri, Tailg, NIU, Ninebot, Xdebike, JD, SF Express and other upstream and downstream companies jointly initiated the establishment of the sodium ion battery industry ecological alliance, which further promoted the development of sodium ion battery industry.

Two-wheeler manufacturers


1. Aima-Natrium Energy

Back in 2021, Aima, the industry leader of electric two-wheeler, has reached a cooperation with Natrium Energy to lay out the research and development of sodium battery. At the 2021 Aima Technology Group Dealer Conference, Aima unveiled a new member of the MAX engine family – the sodium ion battery power system. Although it has not been exposed whether Aima will apply sodium battery to the company’s products, it is believed that the application of Aima sodium ion electric wheelers will not be too far away.


2.Yadea-S9 electric two-wheeler
March 17, Yadea teamed up with its subsidiary Huayu New Energy Technology to release Huayu’s first-generation sodium ion battery “Extreme Sodium No.1” and it also came with a electric two-wheeler S9. This battery is also the first sodium ion battery product in the electric two-wheeler industry with the level of loading applications. The official release of the Extreme Sodium No.1 with S9 is considered to make a good start in the market.


3.Xinri-Hina Battery
March 29, at the Xinri global press conference, Xinri officially signed a contract with Hina Battery, reached a strategic cooperation, and officially announced its entry into the sodium battery market.


4.Tailg-Changyi Sodium Battery

March 30, Tailg announced the release of Tailg long life sodium ion battery. Compared with traditional lithium battery and lead-acid battery, Tailg long-life sodium ion battery has longer life, supports fast charging, and has high accuracy of SOC power prediction, which can realize longer driving range and better riding experience.

Before the official launch of this long-life sodium ion battery product, Tailg has reached a cooperation with Changyi Sodium Battery, and decided to test install the sodium battery and energy storage pack developed by Changyi Sodium Battery on its 500 electric wheelers.


The competition among the leading manufacturers makes the competition of eletric two wheelers sodium battery become more fierce, and with the mass production and commercial node approaching, the new trend of the electric two-wheeler industry is also more worth expecting.

It is foreseeable that, with the development and maturity of the sodium battery technology, in addition to the sodium battery competitors, there will be more and more enterprises into the board to launch two-wheeled and three-wheeled products carrying sodium ion batteries, to bring users more diversified travel options, and also accelerate the market penetration of sodium battery, further promote the high-quality and green development of the industry.

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