Types and differences in lithium ion battery chemistry

This article will look at the working principle of lithium ion batteries from the chemical point of view, distinguishing the difference between lithium ion battery chemistry and other battery chemistry, and the role of lithium ion battery chemical elements.
Table of Contents

The most popular and widely used battery in chemistry is the lithium-ion. Being a versatile and suitable option for many, lithium-ion have become an important element in consumer electronics and applications and are extensively used in smartphones, laptops, and tablets along with electrically charged vehicles and storage systems.


What principle do lithium-ion batteries work on?

The working principle of lithium ion battery is basically the same. Different cathode materials do not lead to essential differences in the reaction in the battery. The charge and discharge of the battery is the movement of lithium ions in the electrolyte, so as to store or release electric energy.

Take LiCoO2 as an example, the reaction of lithium-ion battery during charging is:

Cathode reaction: LiCoO2==Li (1-x) CoO 2 + XLi + + Xe-

Anode reaction: 6C + XLi + + Xe- = Lix C 6

Total reaction: LiCoO2 + 6C = Li (1-x) CoO 2 + Lix C 6

LiFePO4 battery Group chemical reaction Eq

Cathode reaction: LiFePO4? Li1-xFePO4+xLi++xe-

Anode reaction: xLi + + xe- + 6C?LixC6

Total reaction type: LiFePO4 + 6 xC?Li1-xFePO4+LixC6

In the nickel-cobalt-manganese ternary lithium battery materials, the main valence states of the three elements are + 2 valence, + 3 valence and + 4 valence, respectively, and Ni is the main active element. The reaction and charge transfer during charge are as follows:

Cthode reaction: LiMO 2- -Li1-xMO 2 + xLi + + xe-

Anode reaction: nC + xLi + + xe- -LixCn

Total battery reaction: LiMO 2 + nC- -Li1-xMO 2 + LixCn


The important element of lithium ion chemistry

In lithium ion battery chemistry, Lithium is an important metal element, derived from the Greek lithos, meaning “stone”. Natural lithium has two nuclides: lithium-6 and lithium-7. Lithium metal is a light metal of silver white; melting point 180.54°C, boiling point 1342°C, density 0.534 g / cm ³ and hardness 0.6. Is the lightest of all the metal elements.

Different types of lithium ion chemistry

There are several different types of lithium ion battery chemistry.

Lithium cobalt oxide:

It offers high energy density but has thermal stability and safety limitations. Its cathode, nickel and aluminum are added as extra elements. The NCA battery has a high energy density of 200 to 260Wh / kg and a nominal lithium ion battery voltage of 3.6V.

Lithium iron phosphate:

Lithium Iron Phosphate is known for its thermal stability, vast safety measures, and long and expandable life cycle based on regular maintenance. It has a slightly lower energy density than LiCoO2 but is less prone to thermal runaway and is often used in applications that prioritize safety.

Lithium manganese oxide:

Lithium Manganese Oxide offers a balance between the consumption and expenditure of energy and the subsequent safety and cost related to its maintenance. It has a lower energy density than LiCoO2 but provides better thermal stability and can be found in consumer electronics and power tools.

Lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (NMC):

The usual proportions are 60%, 20%, and 20%, respectively. The characteristics of the battery can be changed by varying the ratio of each element to obtain a higher specific energy density or a higher specific power.

Lithium titanate (LTO):

Also known as lithium titanate, the battery uses advanced nanotechnology in its anode. Unlike other batteries that use graphite, the LTO’s anode is made from lithium titanate, a highly porous material with 33 times the surface area per gram of carbon.

Which lithium ion battery chemistry is best?

The “best” lithium ion battery chemistry choice depends on the application’s requirements. Different lithium ion battery chemistry offer varying trade-offs regarding energy density, power capability, safety, cycle life, cost, and other factors. Here are a few considerations for different scenarios:

Energy density:

Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) chemistry offers one of the highest specific energy densities if high energy density is a priority. However, it is less stable and can be prone to thermal runaway under certain conditions. NMC as lithium ion battery chemistry also have an advantage in energy density, so TYCORUN ENERGY uses this battery as a battery for the motorcycle battery swap station.

Power capability:

Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) chemistry excels for applications requiring high power output due to its excellent rate capability and fast charging characteristics. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) chemistry is also known for its high power capability.

Cycle life:

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) chemistry has excellent cycle life, with many thousands of charge-discharge cycles possible before significant capacity degradation. It is commonly used in applications that require long cycle life, such as electric motorcycles and energy storage systems. TYCORUN ENERGY provide this lithium ion battery chemistry motorcycle battery for frequent motorcycle users, for more information, feel free to contact us.

Different lithium-ion batteries have different characteristics. The nature of the battery depends on the internal chemical composition. Each lithium-ion battery chemical reaction has its advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the cost, performance and weight of the product can be selected based on the characteristics of the chemical composition.

How is a lithium ion chemistry battery different from other batteries?

Lithium-ion batteries differ from other types of batteries in several key aspects:

Energy density:

Lithium ion battery chemistry generally has higher energy density than other battery types. This means energy storage can happen in a lighter, more convenient portable package.


One of the features of the lithium-ion battery is that it can be recharged. This makes these batteries most cost-effective and environmentally friendly than disposable ones!


Self-discharge is an irreversible phenomenon of batteries. However, from the chemical materials of lithium-ion batteries, lithium-ion batteries have less self-discharge performance than other batteries, so the self-discharge rate is low.

Memory effect:

Lithium-ion chemical reactions have advantages over other batteries, such as lead-acid battery vulcanization causes battery capacity memory effect, and lithium-ion batteries have no memory effect.


How does rechargeable battery chemistry work?

Rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries, work based on electrochemical reactions between the battery’s electrodes and the electrolyte. Here is a general overview of how rechargeable batteries’ chemistry works:

This charge-discharge cycle can be repeated multiple times, allowing the battery to be recharged and discharged. Disposable and rechargeable batteries are different in utilizing materials to accommodate reversible movement.

How does lithium ion battery chemistry affect performance?

The lithium ion battery chemistry significantly impacts its performance characteristics. Various materials and their compositions and structures influence various aspects of battery performance and health. Here are some key performance factors affected by Lithium ion battery chemistry:

Energy density:

The specific lithium ion battery chemistry and composition of the cathode and lithium ion battery anode materials are crucial in determining energy density. Higher energy density batteries can allow longer runs in portable devices and vehicles.

Cycle life:

The cycle life of a battery refers to the number of charge-discharge cycles it can undergo while maintaining a certain capacity level. The electrode materials’ chemistry and the electrolyte’s stability affect the battery’s cycle life. Longer life cycle batteries allow more durability and rechargeability before significant capacity degradation occurs.

Temperature performance:

Lithium ion battery chemistry can exhibit different behaviors at various temperature ranges. Some chemistries may experience performance degradation or reduced capacity in extreme temperatures. Material choice in the electrolytes influences their ability to operate under significant temperature changes.


Lithium ion battery chemistry is well-researched, tested, and approved to become one of the best battery options available today. And there are many types of lithium battery chemistry selection, according to the above introduction to choose.

Related post

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Sign up for newsletter

Get latest news and update

Newsletter BG