BYD-battery-vs-Tesla-battery-technology-comparison

BYD battery vs Tesla battery – technology comparison

Table of Contents

The performance of an electric vehicle is mainly determined by core technologies such as electric drive system, electronic control technology, battery, and chassis, among which the importance of the battery is self-evident. As the two giants in the field of electric vehicles, Tesla and BYD have embarked on two completely different paths in battery technology. This article will compare the differences of BYD battery vs Tesla battery in battery technology from seven aspects.

Battery R&D technology

Tesla

When we compare BYD battery vs Tesla battery, the biggest difference is their battery R&D technology. Before 2020, Tesla did not independently develop batteries. It has always cooperated with other battery manufacturers. In the early stage, it mainly purchased Panasonic’s ternary lithium battery. From 2019, Tesla started mass production in China and cooperated with LG and CATL to purchase lithium ion batteries.

Tesla used 18650 cells in the early days, and 21700 batteries in the later period. Taking the battery of the early Model S as an example, it consists of more than 7,000 18650 batteries in series and parallel to form a power unit.

cylindrical-battery

Entering 2020, with the increasing market competition, in order to reduce the cost of batteries, Tesla announced that it has started to independently develop 4680 large cylindrical batteries. This ternary lithium battery is independently developed on the basis of Panasonic 21700 batteries. The energy density was almost 5 times that of the 21700 battery, the battery life is increased by about 16%, which means the batteries can be charged from 20% to 80% within 15 minutes.

Public information shows that the advantages of the 4680 battery are obvious. It has been announced several times that mass production is about to be realized, but unfortunately, it has not yet been achieved. The reason is that the overall performance is not up to standard, that is, the technology is still not mature enough.

BYD

BYD itself started with batteries around 2000 and mainly produced mobile phone batteries at that time. It was a battery supplier for mobile phone leading manufacturers such as Motorola and Nokia, which also provided a solid foundation for its subsequent entry into automotive power batteries.

BYD battery vs Tesla battery are completely different in terms of technical route. Tesla has always been inclined to ternary lithium batteries, which is slightly less affected by high and low temperature environment, with higher energy density and longer battery life than lithium ion batteries.

However, BYD weighed various factors such as battery safety, technology, battery life, and vehicle cost, and finally chose to use lithium ion batteries as the research and development direction. Until 2020, BYD announced the mass production of blade batteries. Immediately afterwards, many Chinese car companies contacted BYD to discuss battery cooperation, including Tesla. According to official sources, Tesla’s Berlin plant in Germany has begun mass production of blade batteries.

BYD-blade-battery

In short, BYD’s battery technology has completely realized independent research and development and mass production, and the current installed capacity of batteries in the world is second only to CATL. Tesla has not yet achieved mass production of self-developed batteries, and its main advantage lies in battery management technology.

Electric control technology

Due to the large number of superimposed single batteries in Tesla’s early batteries, each section required an independent management system. To manage 7,000 or 8,000 small batteries at the same time, strong system technical support was needed behind it.

Therefore, Tesla developed its own BMS battery management system. Tesla’s self-developed BMS system design adopts a master–slave configuration. The master controller (BMU) is responsible for high voltage, insulation test, high voltage interlock, contactor control, external communication and other functions, and the slave controller (BMB) is responsible for the monomer voltage, temperature test and report to BMU.

Electric-control-technology

This technology can provide accurate battery health estimation, battery energy balance management, battery heat management, monitoring, online diagnosis and early warning functions. In the entire field of electric vehicles and lithium battery industry, Tesla’s electric control technology occupies a leading position.

Battery safety

The main advantage of the ternary lithium battery is that the energy density is higher, the charge and discharge performance of the battery is slightly better in a low temperature environment, and the battery life is longer than that of the lithium ion battery, but the disadvantage is also flawed. In the high temperature environment, the chemical properties are more active.

For BYD, it not only builds cars but also produces batteries, and is well aware of the relationship between battery safety and the entire vehicle. The chemical activity of the lithium ion battery itself is more stable. In addition, BYD has independently developed the world’s first direct cooling and heating system for power batteries, which effectively improves the charging and discharging performance of the battery in low temperature and high temperature environments.

The advantages of blade batteries in terms of energy density, charge and discharge performance, battery life, cycle life, volume, and cost far exceed those of ordinary lithium iron phosphate batteries.

When the nail penetration test was performed on the lithium ion blade BYD battery vs Tesla battery, the Tesla ternary lithium battery smoked for a short time, and then caught fire, while the blade lithium ion battery was didn’t smoke or get in fire, even in extreme environments such as collision, extrusion, overcharging, and acupuncture. Which shows that the temperature of the battery pack is controllable, and the overall performance is relatively stable.

Battery cycle life

Another big difference between BYD battery vs Tesla battery is the battery cycle life. Compared with the ternary lithium battery used by Tesla, BYD’s blade battery can be charged 2500-3000 times, while the ternary lithium battery is generally around 1500-2000 times.

Assuming that a pure electric vehicle travels 15,000 kilometers per year, which is equivalent to driving an average of 41 kilometers per day, it counts as one cycle charging every three days, and consumes 122 times a year. Assuming that the battery is cycled and charged 2,000 times, the battery can theoretically be used for 16 years. That is to say, the cycle charging life of the blade battery may be at least 5 years longer than that of the ternary lithium battery.

Fast charging technology

In terms of battery charging technology, BYD battery vs Tesla battery have also taken two different routes. Tesla adopts a high-current fast charging mode, and the third-generation super fast charging pile can achieve a charging power of 250 kilowatts.

Tesla-fast-charging

BYD adopts a high-voltage fast charging mode. The maximum power of DC fast charging can reach 120 kilowatts, and it can be charged from 30% to 80% within 25 minutes. From the perspective of actual charging time, there is not much difference between the two charging modes.

Motor power

Each brand has its own unique technology, which is also the guarantee of product quality. When compare BYD battery vs Tesla battery, BYD models are equipped with self-developed permanent magnet synchronous motors. This kind of motor is smaller in size and more flexible, reducing the occupied space and provide more usable space for the vehicle.

The front axle of the Tesla Model 3 still uses an AC asynchronous motor, while the rear axle uses a permanent magnet synchronous motor. Compared with AC asynchronous motors, permanent magnet synchronous motors have more compact dimensions, higher operating efficiency, longer battery life, and are easier to control. In Model Y, Tesla continues to use the permanent magnet synchronous motor solution. The combination scheme of induction + permanent magnet drive motor can make better use of the characteristics of the high-efficiency zone of the induction motor at high speed and the high-efficiency zone of the permanent magnet motor at low speed, and complement the efficiency of the two working areas.

However, this kind of motor also has a drawback, that is, once the motor is driven for too long a time and the motor is in a high temperature state, demagnetization may occur. Faced with this phenomenon, between the two of BYD battery vs Tesla battery, BYD has made a trade-off. Its blade battery has a temperature control system in order to solve the motor problem.

Comprehensive cost

The reason why Tesla chose 18650 batteries is mainly because this battery technology is very mature, and the superposition method can add more energy storage. If there is a problem with a single battery, it is relatively easy to deal with and can effectively control costs. This is a big advantage of Tesla’s ternary lithium battery.

However, the overall cost of ternary lithium batteries is relatively high. The comprehensive cost per kilowatt-hour is generally around 800-1000RMB, while the cost per kilowatt-hour of BYD’s blade battery is about 600-750RMB. Of course, the actual cost after loading is much higher than this cost, taking a model with a battery life of 600 kilometers as an example, the general battery capacity is about 70 kilowatt-hours, which is equivalent to that the ternary lithium battery is at least 20,000 RMB more expensive than the blade battery.

All in all, BYD battery vs Tesla battery are different in various aspects, but they are all choices made by manufacturers to improve performance or user experience, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages.

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