Lithium battery technology – the latest progress and industrialization

In recent years, lithium battery technology has continued to develop. Since 2022, new technologies represented by lithium manganese iron phosphate, composite current collectors, sodium ion batteries, and 4680 large cylinders have shown particularly remarkable new progress.

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Technology progress of lithium battery technology

M3P/lithium manganese iron phosphate:

1)In September 2022, the production capacity of Dynanonic’s new phosphate-based positive electrode will be launched, and then it will pass the batch verification of battery customers.

2) CATL also announced in March 2023 that it will mass-produce M3P batteries within 2023.

3) The Tesla Model 3 facelift will adjust the standard battery pack to the 66KWh M3P version.

4) Other companies: Gotion Hi-Tech released Qichen L600 batteries, and CALB released OS high-manganese batteries, both of which are expected to be launched in 2024. Hunan Yuneng plans to land lithium manganese phosphate production base.

Technology-progress-of-lithium-battery-technologyComposite current collectors:

The change in the lithium battery industry in 2023 lies in the fact that car companies have clear models adopting composite current collectors to land; sample delivery companies in the early stage gradually have orders; some companies’ product plans have switched to PP substrates with better performance; leading material manufacturers represented by Putailai entering and expandang production capacity.

Sodium-ion batteries:

Industrialization has been implemented in two-wheelers (Yadea), pure electric vehicles (Hinabattery, CATL, Farasis), energy storage projects (Malion New Materials, Lifuntech), etc.

46 series large cylinder:

Tesla completed the production of the 10 millionth 4680 battery; EVE disclosed the progress of verification for 8 customers products.

Leading companies pushing the industrialization of lithium manganese iron phosphate

The concept of lithium manganese iron phosphate has been around for a long time, but it has not been industrialized due to problems such as voltage platform instability and manganese element precipitation. Until 2022, CATL proposed M3P (new phosphate ternary), actively promoting the sample verification of car companies, marking the acceleration of industrialization.

● In September 2022, the production capacity of Dynanonic’s new phosphate-based cathode materials was launched and put into trial production, and then successfully passed the batch verification of battery customers.

● In March 2023, CATL announced that it will mass produce and deliver M3P batteries within this year.

● Recently, it is reported that the Tesla Model 3 facelift will upgrade the standard battery pack, and the 60KWh lithium iron phosphate version will be adjusted to the 66KWh M3P version, which proves that the industrialization is coming close.


In addition to the continuous advancement of pioneers such as Tesla, Dynanonic, and CATL, one of the top 10 4680 battery manufactureres, the industry chain is also accelerating the follow-up of the lithium manganese iron phosphate route.

● In May 2023, Gotion Hi-Tech released the Qichen L600 battery cell based on lithium manganese iron phosphate system, which is expected to be mass-produced in 2024.

● CALB has also released the OS high-manganese battery before, and it is also expected to be launched in 2024. Companies including BYD, EVE, etc. will also follow up.

● Hunan Yuneng, a leader in lithium iron phosphate, plans to launch lithium iron phosphate production capacity in the newly expanded Yunnan base. Hubei Wanrun and Fulin Precision are also actively deploying. Ternary lithium battery cathode companies such as Easpring and Ronbay Technology are also landing production capacity of lithium manganese iron phosphate and customer cooperation.


Order landing and scheme optimization of composite current collector

Composite current collectors, especially composite aluminum foil, have been used in high-end models before, but from 2021 to 2022, based on the cost reduction potential of composite copper foil, the industry has paid more attention to it, and carried out research and development and sent samples one by one.

The changes in the industry in 2023 lie in:

1) Car companies have clear models launch and publicity. GAC Aion announced a plan to apply composite current collectors for lithium ion battery anode and cathode at the Battery Clip 2.0 conference in March.

2) The companies with sample delivery in the early stage gradually had their first orders. In June 2023, Shuangxing New Materials and Wanshun New Materials announced that they had obtained the first orders for composite copper foil products.

3) The product plans of some manufacturers have switched from PET base materials to PP base materials with better performance.

4) Material leaders represented by Putailai clearly entered the market and expanded production capacity.


Sodium-ion batteries are still favored by the industry

Sodium-ion batteries have achieved industrialization in two-wheelers, pure electric vehicles, and energy storage projects. In the context of high lithium carbonate prices in 2021-2022, sodium-ion batteries have attracted much attention from the industry and the market.

In 2023, with the drop in lithium carbonate prices, the market has concerns about the logic of sodium batteries. However, sodium batteries are at the initial stage of industrialization , scale cost reduction, large space for technological advancement, and the resource controllable attributes of sodium power, are all make the industry still actively promote sodium power.

● In February 2023, Hinabattery released its sodium electric batteries, and plans to apply on the Sehol EX10 model.

● In March 2023, Yadea released a sodium battery and sodium battery electric two-wheeler model.

● In June 2023, according to the announcement, Chery QQ Ice Cream (A00 level) and JMC Yichi Yutu (A0 level) will adopt the sodium-ion battery solutions of CATL and Farasis.

● In July 2023, Malion and Lifuntech’s Prussian blue-white sodium battery has been officially put into use.


46 series large cylinder entered the trial production stage

Tesla entered the trial production stage after launching the 46-series large cylinder on Battery Day. In February 2022, Tesla announced the completion of the production of 1 million 4680 batteries, and reached a weekly production capacity of 868,000 by the end of December 2022 (corresponding to about 4 5GWh). In June 2023, Tesla completed the production of the 10 millionth 4680 battery (corresponding to about 0.9GWh). 

The progress of EVE is more positive. According to the company’s 2023 announcement, the company’s ternary large cylindrical battery has obtained a total of about 392GWh of customer intentional demand in the past five years. The company also disclosed the progress of 8 customer product verifications. In addition, CALB also released the “top stream” cylindrical battery in April 2023.

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